[First Topic #1]

I wonder why I haven’t thought of this sooner – my origin of my name. According to one site, Ian came from Iain (pronounced E N not I-in). Iain is the old English version of Ian or sometimes Iann starting sometime in the 1800s in Scotland. Ian was spelled Iain in mid-evil Scotland. The meaning of Ian is “God’s Gift.”

Anyway, Celtic/Gaelic versions of present day Ian before the 19th century was spelled Eion, but sounded exactly like today’s spelling of Ian. However, it’s a little confusing because Ian did not start it’s spelling at this time. Some Eions spelled Ian are found in the 14th century. It’s confusing. So in the 14th century we have Eion, Iain, Ian, and Iann. The first two spellings died out over time and today two spellings remain in present day. In English the only proper way to spell “E” is with an IA, EE, EA.

Also interesting is John and Ian mean the same thing. In 19th century Eion was translated into English as John which is a more popular American name.

Here’s how my name is spelled in Chinese:

Oh yeah, I tried writing an entry on CISCO about hexadecimals and binary, but it only got 2 hits in two hours so I realized that it was a bad entry, therefore, I deleted it. Simply put, binary and hexadecimal is the computer language down to the 1s and 0s. Standard of each character is 8 bits or 1 byte of data. 100 bytes make up one kilobyte.

[Next Topic #2]

I am sure that a lot of you know how to count in binary. I never had binary or hexidecimal math in high school therefore, I find it fascinating. Binary goes from left to right while reducing the number in half after each step. See how every number doubles after each step. I have to the 8 total steps backwards left to right starting dividing 128 into what number I need to ‘decode’ (seen below) until I get to step 8:

1

2

4

8

16

32

64

128

If my address was 192.100.189.0

For 192 I would take 192 minus 128 and that would equal 64. So 128 is less than 192 and that would be 1. Then I take 64 minus 64 and that would be 1 because it is excepted by 64. Since it equals 0, the other numbers will not apply.

Binary version of 192 is 11000000 (fixed)

For 100, the next group of digits in the IP address. I can not do 100 – 128 so the first process is 0. 100 can be divided into 64. [100 minus 64 equals 38] so the next digit is 1. 32 can be divided into 38 [38 minus 32 equals 6] We can not do division with 16 or 8. However, 4 works since [6 minus 4 equals 2] so the end result is also 1 in binary. We can do 2 (as seen above) because 2 minus 2 equals 0. As long as 2 can be subtracted into 2 the binary equivalent is 1. 1 we can not do so that binary step is 0. If 0 is subtracted by 0 to equal 0 - I could do this infinite times so that’s why IP addresses only have 8 digits/bits of binary.

Binary version of “100” is 01100110

For 189 I would take 189 minus 128 equals 61 or X so my binary number will be 1. The next step, which is dividing X minus 64 to equal Y. This is not possible since 61 is smaller than 64 already so the next digit must be 0. 61 can be minus by 32 to equal 29 so the third binary digit is 1. 29 can be minus by 16 which will equal 13 so the forth binary digit is 1. 13 minus 8 is 5 since 8 is already smaller than 13 and would counted as 1 as the fifth binary digit. 5 can be minus from 4 so that would be the sixth binary digit of 1. Next I skip 2 because it’s impossible for me to minus 2 from 1 so the seventh binary digit is 0. This would in fact get me into negative numbers. And 1 can minus 1 to equal 0 so the final digit is 1.

Binary version of 189 is 10111101

And the binary version of 0 is 00000000 once.

Binary version of 192.100.189.0.0 is (11000000) . (01100110) . (10111101). (00000000)

Now yets say I wanted to decode 10111101 into decimal that is really easy. Just add these numbers: 128+32+16+8+4+1.

Now Hexadecimal is:

8 is first digit | 4 is second digit | 2 is third digit | 1 is fourth digit

1 = 0001 (1)

2 = 0010 (2)

3 = 0011 (2 + 1)

4 = 0100 (4)

5 = 0101 (4 + 1)

6 = 0110 (4 + 2)

7 = 0111 (4 + 2 + 1)

8 = 1000 (8)

9 = 1001 (8 + 1)

A (10) = 1010 (8 + 2)

B (11) = 1011 (8 + 2 + 1)

C (12) = 1100 (8 + 4)

D (13) = 1101 (8 + 4 + 1)

E (14) = 1110 (8 + 4 + 2)

F (15) = 1111 (8 + 4 + 2 + 1)

Now if 8 digits equal one byte. The Hex version is A5F1 That’s (1010) (0101) (1111) (0001). I can now decode Decimal to Binary or Binary to Decimal or Hex to Decimal or Decimal to Hex.

Some get binary confused with ACSI. The standard ACSI is used by default in the Text editor. ACSI is binary. But what’s confusing is I can do 1 through F in binary. What happened to G through Z and all the funky symbols like ? / ! @ $ % & * ( ) - = + ‘ . | Okay you get my point. For these you need twice the digits which will do 256 characters. Don’t ask me the grouping of 1s and 0s for those because I don’t know. Actually, there are only 255 characters in the computer translation of English language. Think of HMTL with all these 1s and 0s for one character that makes up source code. Actually, technicians don’t refer binary as this. Binary is simply the computer language called ACSI. Yes. Your keyboard can convert decimal to hexadecimal so the CPU and video card can make use of it. I didn't know my keyboard did the encoding!

Now for color we know them as pixels okay. In monochrome bitmap anyways black represents 1 and white represents 0. Now if there is 1000/1000 image. There are 1,000,000 1s and 0s in that monochrome bitmap. Let’s say you have a 4 bit color BITMAP.

Blue is 8

Green is 4

Yellow is 2

Red 1

0100 or 1010 is Green

0010 is Yellow

1000 is blue

0001 is red

0100 or Green is counted as 1 pixel. Now, 8-bit color is hexadecimal. I think this is so because there are 256 possible colors in 8-bit color. Think way back to APPLE ][e color screens in the 1980s. 8 digits can do 256 characters on the computer screen. But ACSI only uses 255 characters. One reason is you don’t want to minus 128 from 256 and get 128. You would run out of digits in hex. 16-bit color would be 256 to the 256th power to get the answer of 65,536 possible colors. Or add 256 [256] times. 32-bit color would be [256] to the 256th power, and then the next number again to the 256th power. his answer would be 4,294,967,296 colors. 16-bit, 24-bit, 32-bit color is something else. It’s defiantly not binary or hexadecimal. T Since this is massive CPU color for GPUs only games have 32-bit color. The desktop resolution is usually 24-bit to ease CPU power. To display high resolution images all I need is 24-bit color.

Now for the confusing part. Compression like GIF and PNG is very complex. You must convert the binary BITMAP to compression compiler or “codec”. CODEC stands for “Compress Decompress” compiler. Some people think it’s “Code Decode” when it’s not. Codecs can be closed source (freeware or shareware) or open source. You must than have an image compression decoding compiler or “codec” in your computer. A compiler takes the compressed data and translates it to color. For this, the compiler is made in hexadecimal because the source code is made up of 255 characters. Don’t ask me how. In fact, I don’t why any open source image formats thus every image codec is copyrighted! Then I ask myself if the image compiler is closed source than why the hell can Linux and Unix have it? The answer to this is simple. The Internet uses these as a standard. A web browser must compile these so they must be free. This is why the Microsoft Anti Trust was concerning Internet Explorer. While Internet Explorer is closed source, open source browsers must have the right to read the same content. So the US Government actually stepped in and said to the organizations such as the “Joint Photographic Experts Group” to let Mozilla and Konquenor programmers see their closed source code to plug the CODEC into Mozilla, and Konquenor so they can include it in their web browser. Problem is Mozilla and Konquenor were created before the Microsoft anti-trust. This ment legal Internet competition. The Supreme Count realized that it couldn't make MS smaller using the web browser monopoly gimmick. Better luck next time supreme judge! JPEG had to agree to this. The deal was that the image CODEC must have tags in the source code giving credit to JPEG or GIF organizations, and can not be modified or it would be illegal.

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